Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Australia

Non-vascular plants & fungi

Resources for the 'forgotten flora'

What are 'non-vascular plants and fungi'?

Non-vascular plants include the mosses, liverworts and hornworts - all true plants, collectively known as Bryophytes -  plus various groups of algae, and (by convention) lichens. By some scientific classifications, only some of the green algae are technically part of the 'Plant Kingdom', with the red, brown, and gold algae and some other groups being in kingdoms of their own, but by convention and historical practice they all are subjects of 'botanical' studies.

The term 'non-vascular' refers to the fact that these organisms do not have the well-developed and complex internal food- and water-conducting tissues (vasculature) possessed by ferns, gymnosperms, and the flowering plants.

Lichens are actually composite organisms, species of fungi that contain within their tissues symbiotic species of cyanobacteria (also known as 'blue-green algae'). These are capable of photosynthesis and provide the host fungal body with food. 

Fungi are technically not plants, but form kingdom of their own.

Non-vascular plants and fungi collectively are often also referred to as 'cryptogams' (from the Greek crypto- 'hidden', gamo 'marriage', referring to the inconspicuous nature of the reproductive organs as compared to flowering plants. The term 'cryptogams' is sometimes taken as also including the Ferns, which are not treated here.

Ecological importance of the 'forgotten flora'

All these groups are often inconspicuous and too little effort has been put into understanding them by scientists and land managers. Yet they are fundamental to the processes of nutrient cycling, soil production and retention, and water retention and quality.

For example, it has been estimated that Australia has about 250 000 species of fungi, but only about 5% of these have been scientifically described. Yet fungi are essential for breaking down organic matter, retaining nutrients in soils, and making these nutrients available to plant roots.

Conservation of non-vascular plants and fungi

Non-vascular plants and fungi (cryptogams) are slowly being recognised as essential elements of ecosystems, and therefore necessary elements of conservation planning. In recent years, a few species of these groups have been listed as Vulnerable or Endangered on various State and Commonwealth legislative schedules, and one fungal habitat at Lane Cove in NSW has also been listed.

Because these groups are relatively poorly known (compared to flowering plants or vertebrate animals), much of the available literature on them is fairly technical, and concentrates on basic description and recognition - for most species there is only a very general level of understanding of distribution, ecology, and conservation status.

However, this poor state of knowledge means that there is a real opportunity for community members with an interest in these groups to make a direct and valuable contribution to our understanding of them.  Among the links below are some to Australian societies and projects that study these organisms - most of these societies welcome enthusiastic new members, so get in touch!

Resources listed below include internet sites, contact information for specialist societies, and selected hard-copy (mostly book) publications. As with all plant groups there is also an extensive literature in specialist journals, but these are not so easily accessible to the general public - your local herbarium may be able to help you with library access to these.

The only attempt at a comprehensive report, for Australia, on the conservation of these groups is:
G. Scott, T. Entwisle, T. May & N. Stevens, Australian non-marine lichens, bryophytes, algae and fungi. Wildlife Australia/Endangered Species Program, Canberra [now part of Environment Australia], 1997. ISBN 0642 213 992.

While now somewhat dated (most of the data deriving from the early 1990s), this publication still provides an indispensible review of the state of knowledge, and of national expertise and training on these groups. It is not curently available in electronic form but hardcopy can be ordered from Environment Australia at http://www.ea.gov.au/about/publications/list.html#threatened or phone the Environment Australia Community Information Unit on +61 (0)2 6274 1221 (in Australia: 1800 803 772).

Identification services for non-vascular plants and fungi in Australia

The following institutions are a starting point for professional identification of non-vascular plants and fungi. Be aware that some of these services do charge for identifications, and that specimens may have to be referred to specialists elsewhere.

Conservation of non-vascular plants and fungi

Resources & links by taxonomic group

Fungi - Australia - internet resources, societies

Fungi - international - internet resources, societies

Fungi and slime moulds - Books - mainly Australia

  • Scott, G.A.M., T. Entwisle, T. May & N. Stevens  Australian non-marine lichens, bryophytes, algae and fungi.  Wildlife Australia/Endangered Species Program, Canberra [now part of Environment Australia], 1997.  (121 pp.) ISBN 0642 213 992.  [Includes overview chapter by Tom May of current levels of knowledge, national expertise and training on Australia's fungi.]
  • Hawksworth, D.L. & J.M. Ritchie  Biodiversity and systematic priorities: microorganisms and invertebrates: prioeities for biosystematic research in suopport of biodiversity in developing countries.  CAB International, Wallingford UK, 1993.  (120 pp.)  ISBN 0851 988 873  [Significant global scoping of biodiversity and conservation of these organisms, including microfungi; includes an extensive bibliography.]
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.)  Flora of Australia - Fungi of Australia, vol. 1A:  Introduction -  Classification.  CSIRO Publishing, 1996. (435 pp.) ISBN 0643 058 028.  [Excellent introduction and review of many aspects of fungal taxonomy, biology, history of Australian mycology, glossary of mycological terms, and bibliography.  Includes keys to the different Orders.]
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.)  Flora of Australia - Fungi of Australia, vol. 1B:  Introduction -  Fungi in the environment.  CSIRO Publishing, 1996. (405 pp.) ISBN 0643 059 350.  [13 essays on different groups of fungi in relation to habitat and animal interactions, toxicity, and fungi as an animal and human food source.]
  • Orchard, A.E.  (ed.) Flora of Australia - Fungi of Australia, vol. 2A:  Catalogue and bibliography of Australian macrofungi 1: Basidiomycota p.p.  CSIRO Publishing, 1997. (358 pp.) ISBN 0643 059 296.  [Listing of over 3,000 names, with an indication of their status; the companion vol. 2B will complete the catalogue for the remainder of the Basidiomycota and the Ascomycota. Further volumes in the series will provide treatments of genera and species.]
  • Bougher, N.L. & K. Syme  Fungi of southern Australia. Univ. of Western Australia Press, 1998. (391 pp.)  ISBN 1875 560 807.  [The title is a trifle misleading, as there is a strong bias to south-western Australian taxa, although many also occur elsewhere; an effect of this is that some common taxa are omitted or only mentioned in passing.  Extensive introductory chapters on fungal properties and ecology, methods for collection, preservation and description, main groups, and species descriptions for 125 species of macrofungi, with excellent colour paintings and line drawings.  Strangely deficient in distributional information.]
  • Grgurinovic, C.A. Larger fungi of South Australia.  Adelaide Botanic Gardens/SA Flora & Fauna Handbooks Committee, 1997. (725 pp.) ISBN 0730 807 371. [Detailed descriptions, keys, and illustrations for about 450 species, including many new to science.  Many taxa also occur in adjacent States.]
  • Aberdeen, J.E.C. Introduction to the mushrooms, toadstools, and larger fungi of Queensland.   Queensland Naturalists Club, 1979. (120 pp.)  ISBN 9595 607. [Key to genera, with a brief description of each genus, plus numerous black and white diagrams depicting fungal features and many species.]
  • Breitenbach, J. and F. Kranzlin (eds).   Fungi of Switzerland. (Vols 1-4 published so far).  Verlag Mykologia, Lucerne, 1984 -1985. ISBN 3856 042 059. Vol 1: Ascomycetes; Vol. 2: non-gilled basidiomycetes;  Vol. 3 boletes and agarics (in part); Vol. 4: agarics. [Each species is described for both macroscopic and microscopic features, and each has an in-situ colour photograph.  Excellent bibliographies for more advanced study. Many of the species and genera listed occur in Australia.]
  • Cleland, J.B. Toadstools and mushrooms and other larger fungi of South Australia. South Australian Government Printer, 1976. (326 pp.)  (Reprint of 1934-5 publication; now substantially superseded by Grgurinovic, above). [Deals with macrofungi of South Australia and includes some from New South Wales. Has keys to orders, families and genera, macroscopic descriptions and descriptions of spores.  Also has some watercolours.]
  • Cole, M., B. Fuhrer & A. Holland  A field guide to the common genera of gilled fungi in Australia.  Revised edition.  Inkata Press, Melbourne, 1984. ISBN 0909 605 114 [1 booklet, 6 plates, and 1 Key to genera in folder]
  • Entwisle, T.J. (ed.)  Aquatic cryptogams of Australia - a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication No 10, 1994.  (151 pp.) ISSN 0156 8426  [Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group.  Black and white drawings of selected species.]
  • Fuhrer, B.A. A Field companion to Australian fungi. Revised edition, Bloomings Books, Hawthorn, Vic.. (162 pp.) ISBN 1876 473 401. [About 170 superb colour photographs of Australian fungi, but with very little accompanying text.]
  • Fuhrer, B., & R. Richardson Rainforest fungi of Tasmania and south-east Australia.  CSIRO and Tasmanian. Forestry Commission, 1992. (95 pp.)  ISBN 0643 053 115.  [Excellent colour photographs and very brief descriptions of over 100 taxa. Deliberately omits information on toxicity/edibility.]
  • Griffiths, K.   A field guide to the larger fungi of the Darling Scarp and south-west of Western Australia.   Self-published by author, 1985. (80 pp.) ISBN 0958 970 505. [Contains a brief key to the broad groups of macro-fungi; paintings and short descriptions (macroscopic characters) of many species.]
  • Hanlin, R.T. Illustrated genera of Ascomycetes. APS Press, Minnesota, 1990. (263 pp.)  ISBN 0890 541 078. [Key to genera, with descriptions and illustrations.]
  • Hawksworth, D.L., B.C. Sutton and G.C. Ainsworth. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi (8th edn).  Commonwealth Mycological Institute, CAB International, 1995. ISBN 0851 988 857 [Global in scope, indispensable for anyone with a serious research interest in the fungi.]
  • Hilton, R.N. & S. Clancy Larger fungi of the jarrah forest. Conservation Council of Western Australia Inc., Research Publication No. 2, 1988.
  • Katsaros, P. Illustrated guide to common slime moulds.  Mad River Press, 1989.  [Key to, and descriptions of, common slime mould species, plus superb colour photographs of many species.]
  • Kendrick, B. The fifth Kingdom (2nd ed.) Mycologue Publications, Ontario, 1992. (406 pp.)  ISBN 0941 051 285  [Introductory university-level textbook, outlining main fungal groups and their ecology.]
  • Largent, D.L. How to identify mushrooms to genus: I: macroscopic features. 3rd ed.  Mad River Press, Eureka, Calif. USA, 1986. (166 pp.) ISBN 0916422003 [Very useful guide for beginners and those more experienced in the study.]
  • Largent, D.L.  How to identify mushrooms to genus II : field identification of genera.  Mad River Press, Eureka, Calif. USA, [1977] (32 pp.) ISBN 0916422089 [Very useful guide for beginners and those more experienced in the study.]
  • Largent, D.L. How to identify mushrooms to genus III : microscopic features Mad River Press, Eureka, Calif. USA, [1977]  (148 pp.) ISBN 0916422097 [Very useful guide for beginners and those more experienced in the study.]
  • Largent, D.L. How to identify mushrooms to genus VI : modern genera
    Mad River Press, Eureka, Calif. USA, c. 1988 (277 pp.) ISBN 0916422763  [Very useful guide for beginners and those more experienced in the study.]
  • Macdonald, R. and J. Westerman   A field guide to fungi of south-eastern Australia.  Nelson, 1979. (153 pp.) ISBN 0170 052 907. [Contains a brief introduction, no keys, and a short macroscopic description and colour photograph of many common species of macrofungi.]
  • Martin, G.W. and C.J. Alexopoulos The Myxomycetes.  University of Iowa Press, 1969. (560 pp.)  [Worldwide coverage of the slime moulds, with colour drawings of almost every species.]
  • Martin, G.W., C.J. Alexopoulos and M.L. Farr  The genera of Myxomycetes.  University of Iowa Press, 1983. (102 pp.) ISBN 0877 451 249.  [A genus-level updating of the previous work; also contains all the illustrations from the earlier book.]
  • May, T.W., & A.E. Wood   Fungi of Australia, Vol. 2A:  Catalogue and bibliography of Australian macrofungi 1: Basidiomycota (in part). Australian Biological Resources Study/CSIRO Publishing, 1997. (348 pp.)  ISBN 0643 05929. [No descriptions or illustrations; this is a technical monograph cataloguing taxa, with authors, place of publication, and Type details.]
  • May, T.W. & J. Simpson Chapter on fungi in J. Williams & J. Woniarski (eds), Eucalypt ecology.  Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    [Good outline of the ecology of fungi in eucalypt communities in Australia.]
  • Phillips, R. Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain. Pan Books, 1981. (287 pp.) ISBN 0330 264 419.  [Includes a brief key to genera followed by many hundreds of colour studio photographs against neutral backgrounds.  Macroscopic descriptions and spore details are given for each species illustrated.]
  • Phillips, R. Mushrooms of North America. Little, Brown and Co, 1991.  [Key to genera plus colour photos and descriptions.]
  • Shepherd, C.J. and C.J. Totterdell Mushrooms and toadstools of Australia.  Inkata Press, 1988. (162 pp.) ISBN 0909 605 513.  [Contains an introduction, glossary, keys to orders, families and genera, macroscopic descriptions, and descriptions of spores.  Also numerous colour photos.]
  • Stevenson, G. New Zealand fungi - an illustrated guide.  (Revised edn). Canterbury University Press, 1994.  (122 pp.) ISBN 0908 812 299.  [Keys to orders and genera; some line and some colour illustrations; also notes on bibliographic resources, collecting techniques, and descriptions of special groups.]
  • Wood, A.E  Australian mushrooms and toadstools: how to identify them. (Revised edn). University of New South Wales Press, 1990.  [Contains keys to the most common genera of fleshy gilled fungi.]
  • Young, T.   Common Australian fungi - a naturalist's guide.  (Revised edn). Bushbook Titles/University of New South Wales Press, 1994. (154 pp.) ISBN 0868 401 501. [Brief introduction to fungi in general, a key to common genera, followed by descriptions of many macrofungi species, illustrated with line sketches, colour paintings and photos.]

Bryophytes (mosses & hepatics) - Australia - internet resources, societies

Bryophytes (mosses & hepatics) - international  - internet resources, societies

Bryophytes (mosses & hepatics) - Books - mainly Australia

  • Beever, J., K.W. Allison and J. Child  The mosses of New Zealand, 2nd ed.   University. of Otago Press, Dunedin, 1992. (214 pp.)  ISBN 0908 569 521. [Keys to, and descriptions of, the NZ species, many of which also occur in Tasmania and the cooler and higher areas of the Australian mainland.]
  • Catcheside, D.G. Mosses of South Australia. South Australian Government Printer, 1980. (364 pp.) [Keys and descriptions of species; well-illustrated and useful, particularly in arid areas.]
  • Cropper, S.C., D.A. Tonkinson and G.A.M. Scott A census of Victorian bryophytes. Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria, 1991. (56 pp.)  ISBN 0730 622 436. [Listings of moss and liverwort species with family assignment, synonymy, and reference to original publication of each name.]
  • Eldridge, D. & M.E. Tozer  A practical guide to soil lichens and bryophytes of Australia¡¦s dry country.  New South Wales Dept of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, 1997. (80pp.) ISBN 0731 303 024 [Excellent and very readable guide to soil crusts and the species in them.  Well illustrated.]
  • Entwisle, T.J. (ed.)  Aquatic cryptogams of Australia - a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication No 10, 1994.  (151 pp.)  ISSN 0156 8426. [Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group.  Black and white drawings of selected species.]
  • Jackes, B.R.   Plants of the tropical rainforest - Mt Spec area, North Queensland.  Botany Department, James Cook University, Townsville, 1990. (81 pp.)  ISBN 0864 433 59X.  [Guide to ID of the trees, shrubs, vines, folliicolous lichens, bryophytes, and ferns of the Mt Spec / Paluma Range area.  Few illustrations, but good exhaustive keys.  Foolscap format.]
  • Jarman, S.J. and B.A. Fuhrer   Mosses and Liverworts of rainforest in Tasmania and south-eastern Australia. CSIRO Australia, and Forestry Tasmania, 1995. (134 pp.)  ISBN 0643 056 858.  [A short introductory section on bryophytes, followed by brief descriptions and superb colour photos for c. 100 species.]
  • Malcolm, B. and N. Malcolm The forest carpet - New Zealand's little-noticed forest plants - mosses, lichens, liverworts, hornworts, forkferns, and lycopods. Craig Potton, N.Z., 1989. (139 pp.) ISBN 0908 802 080.  [Colour photos with close-up camera and microscope; general discussion of ecology and structure interspersed.]
  • Ramsay, H.P. Census of New South Wales mosses. Telopea vol. 2, no 5: 455-533; Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, 1984, ISSN 0312 9764.   [Checklist and distribution statements for NSW mosses (including ACT), arranged by geographical region (e.g. tablelands) plus information on distributions outside NSW and Australia.]
  • Ramsay, H.P. Register of Type specimens of mosses in Australian herbaria. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 2. (142 pp.) ISBN 0642 203 180  [For the taxonomic specialist ¡V NOT an identification guide.]
  • Ramsay, H.P. and H. Streimann Mosses and their distribution in the Australian Capital Territory.   Telopea vol. 2, no 5: 559-574;  Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 1984, ISSN 0312 9764.   [Checklist and distribution of ACT mosses by region (Canberra Plain, Brindabella Ranges, Booth Range, Southern Ranges, Kowen Forest); also with information on distribution of the taxa outside the ACT.]
  • Sainsbury, G.O.K.   A handbook of the New Zealand mosses.  Royal Society of NZ, Bulletin No. 5, 1955. (490 pp.).  [Good coverage of N.Z. mosses, although largely superseded by Beever (q.v.). Many of the names are now outdated, but the descriptions and keys are still valuable, and correct names for many taxa occurring in Australia can be determined by cross-reference to other works, especially Streimann and Curnow.]
  • Scott, G.A.M. & I.G. Stone   The mosses of Southern Australia. Academic Press, London, 1976. (495 pp.) ISBN 0126 338 507. [Keys to, and descriptions of, the mosses of the area.  Good diagrams. OUT OF PRINT.]
  • Scott, G.A.M., T. Entwisle, T. May & N. Stevens,  Australian non-marine lichens, bryophytes, algae and fungi.  Wildlife Australia/Endangered Species Program, Canberra [now part of Environment Australia], 1997.  (121 pp.) ISBN 0642 213 992.  [Includes overview chapter by George Scott on current levels of knowledge, national expertise and training on Australia¡¦s bryophytes.]
  • Streimann, H. & J. Curnow Catalogue of mosses of Australia and its external territories.  Australian Flora and Fauna series no. 10, AGPS Canberra, 1989. (479 pp.)  ISBN 06445 05311. [Not an ID guide, but a list of valid and invalid names, down to subspecific level, used in Australia, with distributional data, references, and synonymy.]

Bryophytes (mosses & hepatics) - Books - mainly Australia 

  • Allison, K.W. & J. Child  Liverworts of New Zealand. University of Otago Press, Dunedin, NZ, 1975. (300 pp.)  [Easy to follow keys, descriptions, and illustrations of NZ hepatics, aimed at users with a handlens. Useful in Tasmania or as an adjunct to Scott (1985) for habit diagrams and comparison of descriptions.]
  • Cropper, S.C., D.A. Tonkinson and G.A.M. Scott A census of Victorian bryophytes. Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria, 1991. (56 pp.)  ISBN 0730 622 436. [Listings of moss and liverwort species with family assignment, synonymy, and reference to original publication of each name.]
  • Eldridge, D. & M.E. Tozer  A practical guide to soil lichens and bryophytes of Australia¡¦s dry country.  New South Wales Dept of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, 1997. (80pp). ISBN 0731 303 024  [Excellent and very readable guide to soil crusts and the species in them.  Well illustrated.]
  • Entwisle, T.J. (ed.)   Aquatic cryptogams of Australia - a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters.   Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication No 10, 1994.  (151 pp.)  ISSN 0156 8426.  [Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group. Black and white drawings of selected species.]
  • Jarman, S.J. and B.A. Fuhrer Mosses and Liverworts of rainforest in Tasmania and south-eastern Australia.  CSIRO Australia, and Forestry Tasmania, 1995. (134 pp.)  ISBN 0643 056 858. [A short introductory section on bryophytes, followed by brief descriptions and superb colour photos for c. 100 species.]
  • Malcolm, B. and N. Malcolm The forest carpet - New Zealand's little-noticed forest plants - mosses, lichens, liverworts, hornworts, forkferns, and lycopods. Craig Potton, N.Z., 1989. (139 pp.) ISBN 0908 802 080.  [Colour photos with close-up camera and microscope; general discussion of ecology and structure interspersed.]
  • Scott, G.A.M.   Southern Australian liverworts. Australian Flora and Fauna series no. 2, AGPS, 1985. (216 pp.) ISBN 0644 036 32X.  [Keys to and descriptions of the liverwort and some hornwort species; limited, and with some omissions due to being based on the author's collections only, and essentially covering only the south-east of the continent. Nevertheless, the only such descriptive treatment so far available.  Good illustrations.]
  • Scott, G.A.M., T. Entwisle, T. May & N. Stevens,  Australian non-marine lichens, bryophytes, algae and fungi.  Wildlife Australia/Endangered Species Program, Canberra [now part of Environment Australia], 1997.  (121 pp.) ISBN 0642 213 992.  [Includes overview chapter by George Scott on current levels of knowledge, national expertise and training on Australia¡¦s bryophytes.]
  • Scott, G.A.M. and J.A. Bradshaw  Australian liverworts (Hepaticae):  annotated list of binomials and checklist of published species, with bibliography. Brunonia vol. 8, no 1, Herbarium Australiense, 1986, ISSN 0313 4245.  [Valid and invalid names, synonymy, references, and distribution of liverworts and hornworts throughout Australia.]
  • Thiers, B.M. & S.R. Gradstein  Lejeuneaceae (Hepaticae) of Australia. 1. Subfamily Ptychanthoideae.  (1989).  Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 52: 1-79.

Lichens - Australia - internet resources, societies

Lichens - international - internet resources, societies

Lichens - Books - mainly Australia

  • Scott, G.A.M., T. Entwisle, T. May & N. Stevens,  Australian non-marine lichens, bryophytes, algae and fungi.  Wildlife Australia/Endangered Species Program, Canberra [now part of Environment Australia], 1997.  (121 pp.) ISBN 0642 213 992.  [Includes overview chapter by Nell Stevens on current levels of knowledge, national expertise and training on Australia¡¦s lichens.]
  • George, A.S. (ed.)  Flora of Australia, vol. 54  (various contributors). AGPS, 1992.  (348 pp.)  ISBN 0644 240 61X.  [First of five volumes in this series that will cover lichens. This volume contains introductory chapters on history of Australian lichenology, physical structure of lichens, photobionts, chemistry, ecology and biogeography, uses, and collection techniques.  These are followed by a systematic schema (down to generic level), keys to all the Australian genera, and the first few family treatments (including Lecanorales, in part).
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.)   Flora of Australia, vol. 55. CSIRO Publishing, 1994. (360 pp.)  ISBN 0643 056 769.  [This continues from Vol. 54, with Lecanorales 2 to Parmeliaceae].
  • Filson, R.B. Checklist of Australian lichens and allied fungi.  Flora of Australia Supplementary Series No. 7, 1996. (204 pp.) ISBN 0642 259 593.  [Comprehensive listing; provides scientific names, authors, place of publication, and distribution to State level. Not an identification guide as such.  Good listings of synonyms and of incorrectly reported taxa.]
  • Filson, R.B. & R.W. Rogers Lichens of South Australia. Government Printer, Adelaide, 1979.  (197 pp.)
  • McCarthy, P.M.   Checklist of Australian lichens (4th edn). National Herbarium of Victoria, Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne, 1991. (177 pp.)  ISBN 0730 620 913.  [Catalogue of the species in Australia, with references to original publication of the names, and some synonymy.]
  • Eldridge, D. & M.E. Tozer   A practical guide to soil lichens and bryophytes of Australia¡¦s dry country.  New South Wales Dept of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney, 1997. (80pp). ISBN 0731 303 024  [Excellent and very readable guide to soil crust species. Well illustrated.]
  • Rogers, R.W. The genera of Australian lichens (lichenized fungi). University of Queensland Press, 1981. (124 pp.) ISBN 0702 215 791.  [Catalogue of the genera in Australia, with keys to genera, generic descriptions, and references.  No diagrams.]
  • Entwisle, T.J. (ed.) Aquatic cryptogams of Australia - a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication No 10, 1994.  (151 pp.)  ISSN 0156 8426.  [Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group.  Black and white drawings of selected species.]
  • Filson, R.B. Index to Type specimens of Australian lichens: 1800-1984. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 4. (317 pp).  [For the taxonomic specialist - NOT an identification guide.]
  • Filson, R.B. and R.W. Rogers  Lichens of South Australia.  South Australian Government Printer, 1979. (197 pp.)  [Keys to, and descriptions of, arid area lichens with introductory notes on lichen structures and ecology.  Some illustrations.]
  • Jackes, B.R.   Plants of the tropical rainforest - Mt Spec area, North Queensland. Botany Department, James Cook University, Townsville, 1990.  (81 pp.) ISBN 0864 433 59X. [Guide to ID of the trees, shrubs, vines, folliicolous lichens, bryophytes, and ferns of the Mt Spec / Paluma Range area.  Few illustrations, but good exhaustive keys. Foolscap format.]
  • Kantvilas, G.  Lichens of rainforest in Tasmania and south-eastern Australia. Flora of Australia. Supplementary series no  9.  Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra 1999. (212 pp.) ISBN 0642568022
  • Hale, M.E. How to know the lichens (2nd edn). (The Pictured Key Nature Series) Wm C. Brown and Co, Dubuque, Iowa, USA, 1979.  (246 pp.)  ISBN 0697 047 636  [A beginners guide to identifying non-crustose lichens. Numerous black and white photos and line illustrations.]
  • Galloway, D.J.   Flora of New Zealand - Lichens. Government Printer, Wellington, N.Z., 1985. (662 pp.) ISBN 0477 012 663  [Keys to and descriptions of the N.Z. lichen flora, many of which have affinities to the Australian taxa, especially for Tasmania and the wetter south-east. Organised into structural groups, e.g. fruticose taxa. See also Malcolm & Galloway 1997, below.]
  • Malcolm, B. and N. Malcolm The forest carpet - New Zealand's little-noticed forest plants - mosses, lichens, liverworts, hornworts, forkferns, and lycopods.  Craig Potton, N.Z., 1989. (139 pp.) ISBN 0908 802 080.  [Colour photos with close-up camera and microscope; general discussion of ecology and structure interspersed.]
  • Hale, M.E.Jr. and M. Cole Lichens of California. (Calif. Natural History Guides: 54)  University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988. (254 pp.) ISBN 0520 057 120.  [Keys to and descriptions of Californian lichens (many genera in common with Australia), with introductory notes on lichen structure, ecology, and collecting. Organised into structural groups, e.g. fruticose taxa.]
  • Kershaw, K.A. and K.L. Alvin The Observer's book of lichens. Frederick Warne and Co. Ltd, London, 1963.  [Structure and biology of lichens, key to genera, descriptions of genera and species, with some paintings and photographs.  British Isles coverage, but many genera in common with Australia.]
  • Malcolm, W.M. & D.J. Galloway New Zealand Lichens - Checklist, key and Glossary.  Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, 1997.  (192 pp.)  [Contents as per title, with excellent photographs.]

Algae (marine) and marine vascular plants - Australia - internet resources, societies

Algae (marine) - international - internet resources, societies

Algae (marine) - Books - mainly Australia

  • Womersley, H.B.S. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part I.  D.J. Woolman, Adelaide, 1984. 
  • Womersley, H.B.S. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part II.
    (484 pp.) ISBN 0724 36501X
  • Womersley, H.B.S. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia: Rhodophyta Part IIIA.  (508 pp.)  ISBN 0642 198071
  • Womersley, H.B.S. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia: Rhodophyta: Part IIIB: Gracilariales, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales, Bonnemaisoniales.  (392 pp.)  ISBN 0642 248494
  • Womersley, H.B.S. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia: Rhodophyta: Part IIIC: Ceramiales -Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae. (535 pp)  ISBN 073086251
  • Fuhrer, B.  Seaweeds of Australia. 2ND ed.  Reed, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. 1988 (112pp.) ISBN 0730102424

Algae (freshwater) - Australia - internet resources, societies

Algae (freshwater) - international - internet resources, societies

Algae (freshwater) - Books - mainly Australia

  • Scott, G.A.M., T. Entwisle, T. May & N. Stevens,  Australian non-marine lichens, bryophytes, algae and fungi.  Wildlife Australia/Endangered Species Program, Canberra [now part of Environment Australia], 1997.  (121 pp.) ISBN 0642 213 992. [Includes overview chapter by Tim Entwisle on current levels of knowledge, national expertise and training on Australia¡¦s freshwater algae.]
  • Aston, H.I. Aquatic plants of Australia.  Melbourne University Press, 1973. (368 pp)  ISBN 0522 840 442.  [Identification guide for native and naturalized species; good line illustrations; distribution maps for Victoria only.]
  • Entwisle, T.J. (ed.) Aquatic cryptogams of Australia - a guide to the larger fungi, lichens, macroalgae, liverworts and mosses of Australian inland waters. Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication No 10, 1994.  (151 pp.)  ISSN 0156 8426.  [Key to the major groups of the title, then keys within each group.  Black and white drawings of selected species.]
  • Entwisle, T.J., J.A. Sonneman & S.H. Lewis Freshwater algae in Australia - a guide to conspicuous genera.  Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, 1997.  (242 pp.)  ISBN 0646 314 084. [Paperback-sized, excellent field and laboratory guide.  Easy illustrated key, short descriptions and notes, high-quality colour micrographs and line drawings.]
  • Ling, H.U. & P.A. Tyler  Australian freshwater algae (exclusive of diatoms).  J. Cramer, Berlin, 2000.  (643 pp.)  ISBN 3443 600 328
  • Baker, P. Identification of common noxious cyanobacteria.  Part 1 - Nostocales.  Urban Water Research Association of Australia, Research Report No. 29, 1991. (204 pp.)  ISBN 1875 298 290
  • Baker, P. Identification of common noxious cyanobacteria.  Part 1 - Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales.  Urban Water Research Association of Australia, Research Report No. 46, 1992. (139 pp.)  ISBN 1875 298 460
  • Croasdale, H. & E.A. Flint   Flora of New Zealand.  Freshwater Algae, Chlorophyta, Desmids with ecological comments on their habitats.  Vol. 1.  V.R. Ward. Government Printer, Wellington, 1986 (133 pp)  ISBN 0477 013 538
  • Croasdale, H. & E.A. Flint   Flora of New Zealand. Freshwater Algae, Chlorophyta, Desmids with ecological comments on their habitats.  Vol. 2: Actinotaenium, Cosmarium, Cosmocladium, Spinocosmarium, Xanthidium. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch, 1988. (147 pp.) ISBN 0477 025 307
  • Croasdale, H., E.A. Flint & M.M. Racine   Flora of New Zealand. Desmids. Vol. 3. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, 1994. (218 pp.)  ISBN 0477 016 421
  • Day, S.A., R.P. Wickham, T.J. Entwisle & P.A. Tyler  Bibliographic checklist of non-marine algae in Australia.  Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra 1995. (276 pp.)  ISBN 0642 227 888
  • Entwisle, T.J.   Macroalgae in the Yarr River basin: flora and distribution.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 101: 1-76, 1989.
  • Ling, H.U. & P.A. Tyler A limnological survey of the Magela Creek system, Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory:  Algae of the region (excluding diatoms). Australian Publishing Service, Canberra, 1986.
  • Raam, J.C. The Characeae of Tasmania. J. Cramer, Berlin/Stuttgart, 1995.
  • Sainty, G.R. and S.W.L. Jacobs   Waterplants of New South Wales. Water Resources Commission of NSW, 1981. (550 pp.)  ISBN 0724 037 306.  [Near-comprehensive guide to freshwater aquatic and waterside vegetation; colour plates of most species.]
  • Sainty, G.R. and S.W.L. Jacobs   Waterplants in Australia. Australian Water Resources Council, 1994.  (327 pp.) ISBN 0646 159 399. [A pocket-sized field guide to 120 common and noxious species, plus chapters on algae and management; pictorial key, descriptions, colour plates.]
  • Skinner, S. Some freshwater Chlorophyta from the Bool lagoon system in south-eastern South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 107: 223-230, 1983
  • Sullivan, C., J. Saunders & D. Welsh.  The phytoplankton of the River Murray, 1980-1985.  Water, Material and Environmental Science Branch Report No  92, Rural Water Commission of Victoria, 1988. (61 pp)
  • Hughes, J.M.R. and G.L. Davis   Aquatic plants of Tasmania. Department of Geography, University of Melbourne, 1989. (117 pp.)  ISBN 0868 399 957. [Brief descriptions, good black and white drawings, and distribution maps.]
  • Mitrovic, S. What scum is that? - Algal blooms and other prolific plant growth. [NSW/] Department of Land and Water Conservation, 1995.  (24 pp)  ISBN 0731 023 331.  [Large-format booklet, with a simple key to commonly blooming freshwater aquatic taxa of algae, aquatic liverworts, ferns, and some angiosperms.  Brief descriptions and illustrations.]
  • Thomas, D.P. A limnological survey of the Alligator Rivers region [Northern Territory]. 1: Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) of the region. Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region Research Report 3, part 1, 1983.
  • Thomasson, K. Algal vegetation in North Australian billabongs. Nova Hedwigia 42: 301-378, 1986.
  • Anon. [Health Dept of Victoria]  Blue-green algae in drinking water supplies. [Information package] 1990.
  • Wood, R.D. Characeae of Australia. Nova Hedwigia 22: 1-120, 1971. 

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