Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Australia


Pertusaria Group 22

Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores (6-)8 per ascus, on wood  

photo = view photo synonyms = view synonyms


Xanthones present 


1a Xanthones absent  79


Lichexanthone or chlorinated derivatives present 


2a Norlichexanthone derivatives or thiophaninic acid or its derivatives present  55


Lichexanthone present 

3a Chlorinated lichexanthone derivatives present  19


Lichexanthone only present; spores 2-seriate, 120-140µm long
Ostioles single, dark brown, pseudolecanorine; Brasil  
Ostioles several, black, punctiform; Chile

P. phaeostoma Müll. Arg. synonyms
P. valdiviana Messuti & A.W. Archer photo

4a Lichexanthone with depsides and/or depsidones present 5


Lichexanthone and stictic or norstictic or protocetraric acid present  


5a Lichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic and 2-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 64-78 µm long; Thailand P. alboaspera var. deficiens Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer 
  Lichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; 2-O-methylstenosporic acid absent; spores 52 x 27 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; Central Afr.  P. subareolata Müll. Arg. photo


Lichexanthone and protocetraric acid present


6a Lichexanthone and stictic acid present 10
6b Lichexanthone and norstictic acid ± stictic acid; spores 16-22 µm long; S.Am P. phlyctaenula Nyl.


Lichexanthone and protocetraric acid; spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; S.Am 

 P. rhodostomoides Vain.

7a Lichexanthone, protocetraric acid and depsides present  8


Lichexanthone, protocetraric and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present


8a Lichexanthone, protocetraric and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 2-seriate, 60-100 µm long; Thailand  P. nanensis Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer


Spores 1-seriate, 80-125 µm long, rough-walled, with  additional planaic acid;  Central Afr. 

 P. lambinonii A.W. Archer et al. 

9a Spores 55-60 µm long, smooth-walled; S.Am  P. curatellae Malme


Lichexanthone and stictic acid present


10a Lichexanthone, stictic acid and depsides present  14


Thallus sorediate or spores rough-walled 


11a Thallus esorediate and spores smooth-walled  13


Thallus sorediate; spores  98-111 µm long; Central Afr. 

P. fosseyae A.W. Archer et al.

12a Thallus esorediate; spores 125-175 µm long; West Indies  P. parnassia Vain.


Spores 2-seriate, 100-140 µm long; Aus, S.Am, India, Sri Lanka 

P. nigrata Kremp. photo synonyms

13a Spores 1-seriate, 75-87 µm long; S.Am.  P. tuberculifera var. ferax Müll. Arg.


Sekikaic or confluentic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acids present 


14a Stenosporic acid derivatives present  16


Sekikaic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 100-140 µm long; Aus 

P. dehiscens var. sekikaica A.W. Archer & Elix

15a Confluentic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 87-110 µm long P. gracilis f. heteromera Müll. Arg.

2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present:
Spores 1-seriate, 75-105 µm long; Aus 

P. leucostigma Müll. Arg. photo
  Spores 1-seriate, 60-90 µm long; N.Am  P. paratuberculifera Dibben 
  Spores 40-52 µm long, 1-seriate; additional planaic acid present; Aus  P490  Pertusaria sp.


Lichexanthone, stictic and 2'-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 2-seriate, 70-110 µm long; Thailand 

P. platycarpa Jariangprasert

16a  Lichexanthone, stictic and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acids present   17

Spores 1-seriate, 50-67 µm long; Brazil 

P. verruculifera Vain. photo
Spores 1-seriate, 60-84 µm long;  Colombia   P. leioplaca var. pycnocarpa Nyl. photo
17a Spores 2-seriate 18

Spores 90-100 µm long; Aus[ostioles pale] 

 P. alboaspera A.W. Archer & Elix
18a Spores 75-85 µm long; S.Afr.[ostioles pale]  P. glaucocinerea Vain.
  Spores 62-75 µm long; S.Afr [ostioles black] P. congesta Vain.

4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 

19a 2-Chlorolichexanthone or 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorolichexanthones and 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present 44

4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone only present

20a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsidones and/or depsides present  24

Spores 150-200 µm long; [± 4-chlorolichexanthone]; S.Am

 P. confundens Nyl.
21a Spores <100 µm long 22

Spores 1-seriate, 30-37 µm long; NZ

 P. parvula A.W. Archer & Elix

22a Spores 2-seriate, >50 µm long 23

Spores 60-90 µm long; Aus, Asia, Central Afr. 

P. rigida Müll. Arg. synonyms
Finland; 6/ascus [also + stictic acid]  P. raeseanenii Erichs.
23a Spores 55-70 µm long; S.Am; ostioles conspicuous, black, 1-4, in translucent zones P. mundula Müll. Arg 
  Spores 50-62 µm long; Aus; ostioles inconspicuous, 1, black, punctiform  NSW 156055 


4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsidones present 


24a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides present, ±stictic acid 30

4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and norstictic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 67-85 µm long; Aus 

Spores 1-seriate, 28-50 µm long; China

P. undulata Müll. Arg.

P. wenxianensis Q. Ren photo

25a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present 26

Spores 1-seriate 

26a Spores 2-seriate 114

Species circumboreal 

27a Species in Southern Hemisphere  29

Spores 18-46 µm long

P. sommerfeltii (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Fr. synonyms
28a Spores 40-70 µm long; also in Japan P. alpina Hepp ex Ahles synonyms
28b Spores 30-60 µm long; S Eur. P. constricta Erichs.
  Spores 60-90 µm long; central Eur P. caesioumbrina Eitner

Spores 65-70 µm long; ostioles white; Aus  

P. leucostomoides Zahlbr. synonyms
29a Spores 48-72 µm long; ostioles black; S.Am P. melanostoma Kremp.

4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and stenosporic acid derivatives present 

30a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides or 9-O-methylalternariol present  32

2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 80-94 µm long; Thailand 

P. kansriae var. stictica Jariangprasert
31a 2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic & 2,2'-di-O-methyldivaricatic acids present; spores 64-102 µm long; Thailand  P. subplanaica var. stictica Jariangprasert

With perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives 

32a With 9-O-methylalternariol; spores 2-seriate, 75-87 µm long; PNG P. praecipua A.W. Archer & Elix

With stenosporic acid derivatives present 

33a With perlatolic acid derivatives or confluentic, miriquidic or divaricatic acids present 36

2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2 seriate, 64-80 µm long; India 

P. rimosa Awasti & Srivastava
34a 2'-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 1 seriate, 70-80 µm long; Aus P. praetermissa A.W. Archer & Elix photo
34b With 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid 35

Spores 1-seriate, 70-110 µm long; Aus, NZ 

P. subplanaica A.W. Archer & Elix photo
35a Spores 2-seriate, 60-78 µm long; Thailand  P. boklueaensis Jariangprasert

Miriquidic or confluentic acid present 

36a Perlatolic acid, perlatolic acid derivatives or divaricatic acid present  38

Miriquidic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 75-95 µm long; Aus 

P. novaehollandiae A.W. Archer photo
37a Confluentic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-75 µm long; PNG P. weberi A.W. Archer & Elix
37b Confluentic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 50-60 µm long; Eur   P. werneriana Boqueras

Perlatolic or divaricatic acid present 

38a Perlatolic acid derivatives present 40

Perlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 50-60 µm long; Aus  

P. minispora A.W. Archer & Elix
39a Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 75-82 µm long; Aus P. pseudothwaitesii A.W. Archer & Elix photo

2'-O-Methylperlatolic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 

40a 2’-O-methylperlatolic acid and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 31-44 µm long; Argentina  P. kalelae Messuti photo
40b Planaic acid present  43

2-O-Methylperlatolic acid and methyl 2-O-methylperlatolate present; spores 1-seriate, 50-60 µm  long; Aus.

 P. xenismota A.W. Archer & Elix photo
41a 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 42

Spores 1-seriate, 32-65 µm long; Aus 

Spores 20-30 µ long; China

P. pertractata Stirt. synonyms

P. parasommerfeltii Q.Ren photo

  With additional 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone; PNG  P. allogibberosa A.W. Archer & Elix
42a Spores 2-seriate, 55-110 µm long; Aus, Sri Lanka, N.Am  P. mesotropa Müll. Arg. synonyms

Spores 80-100 µm; E.Aus  

P. planaica A.W. Archer & Elix
43a Spores 40-65 µm; W.Aus P. subarida A.W. Archer & Elix

2-Chlorolichexanthone present 

44a 2,4- and 2,5-Dichlorolichexanthones and 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present  48

2-Chlorolichexanthone and depsidones present 

45a 2-Chlorolichexanthone and depsides present  47
45b 2-Chlorolichexanthone only present; spores 45-50 µm long; S.Am  P. torquatella Müll. Arg.

Stictic acid (major) and constictic acid (minor) present; spores 2-seriate, 65-80 µm long; S. hemisphere; ostioles pale

 P. cryptostoma Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
46a Constictic acid (major) and stictic acid (minor) present; spores 2-seriate, 55-66 µm long; S.Am  P. delicatula Müll. Arg.

2'-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-70 µm long: Aus  

P. boweniana A.W.Archer & Elix
47a Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-92 µm long: Aus P. orarensis A.W. Archer & Elix photo

Xanthones only present 

48a Xanthones and stictic acid and/or depsides present 52

Spores 105-135 µm long; 2-seriate, rough-walled; PNG 

P. anomalospora A.W. Archer, Elix & Streimann photo
49a Spores <100 µm long, 2-seriate   50

Spores 50-75 µm long 

50a Spores 70-100 µm long; N.Am 'xanthone X-2' P. ostiolata Dibben
50b Spores 40-54 µm long: S.Am. P. ferax A.W. Archer & Elix
51 Spores 62-75 µm long; ostioles brown, conspicuous; S.Am  P. paraguayensis Müll. Arg.
51a Spores 48-60 µm long; ostioles pale grey, translucent; West Indies P. glaucopunctata Vain.

Stictic acid present 

52a Stictic acid absent 54

Spores 2-seriate, 50-75 µm long; Aus 

P. lordhowensis A.W. Archer & Elix
53a Additional 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 45-50 µm long; Aus P. gundermanica A.W. Archer & Elix

Additional 2-O-methyl- & 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 1-seriate, 45-50 µm long; Aus 

P. complanata A.W. Archer & Elix
54a Additional 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 85-112 µm long; S.Am [syntype, leg. Schenk 1891] P. 'polita' Müll. Arg.

Arthothelin, 6-O-methylarthothelin or thiophanic acid present 

55a Thiophaninic acid or 4-chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present  59

Arthothelin and thiophanic acid present 

56a 6-O-Methylarthothelin and arthothelin present; spores 2-seriate 58

Spores 60-75 µm long; NZ 

P. bartlettii A.W. Archer & Elix
57a Spores 80-95µm long; PNG P. karkarensis A.W. Archer & Elix

Spores 100-125 µm long; S.Am 

P. papillulata Nyl. synonyms
58a Spores 60-87 µm long; S.Am & Aus P. oblongata Müll. Arg. synonyms photo
58b Spores 55-60 µm; 6-O-methylarthothelin only; S.Am.  P. candida Müll. Arg. photo

4-Chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present; spores 1-seriate, 70-87 µm long; Sri Lanka 

P. subdepressa Müll. Arg.
59a Thiophaninic acid present  60

Thiophaninic acid only present 

60a Thiophaninic and depsides and/or depsidones present 66

Spores 1-seriate, 50-70 µm long; ostioles black; NZ 

P. laevis C.Knight
61a Spores 2-seriate 62

Spores 85-115 µm long; ostioles black; NZ 

P. theochroa Kremp.
62a Spores 50-95 µm long  63

Spores 75-95 µm; ostioles brown; Aus 

P. thiophaninica A.W. Archer
63a Spores ≤ 70 µm 64

Spores 50-70 µm long; S.Am and New Caledonia 

64a Spores 52-65 µm long; French Antilles P. flavens Nyl.
64b Spores 30-70 µm long; 1-2 seriate; Eur. P. plombii B. de Lesd.
64c Spores 40-50 µm long; Argentina      P. chacoensis Messuti & L.I. Ferraro photo
Spores 8/ascus; S.Am 
P. meridionalis var. ochrostoma Müll. Arg.  photo synonyms
65a Spores 4? 8? /ascus; New Caledonia P. endochroma Müll. Arg.


Depsidones ± depsides present 67
66a Depsides present, depsidones absent 73
67 Norstictic or protocetraric acid present  68
67a Stictic or variolaric acid present 69
68 Norstictic acid present; spores 55-110 µm long; N.Am  P. rubefacta Erichs.
  Spores 52-68 µm; N. Africa P. praelutescens Werner [nom. inval.]
68a Protocetraric acid present; spores  55-85 µm long; S.Am P. glaziovii Müll. Arg. synonyms

Thiophaninic, stictic, variolaric or virensic acids present; depsides absent 

69a Thiophaninic and stictic acid with depsides or protocetraric acid present 77

Additional constictic and hypoconsticic acids present; spores 1-seriate, 50-75 µm long; S.Am

 P. rhodostoma Nyl.
70a Thiophaninic acid, stictic or variolaric or virensic acids present 71

Stictic acid present; thallus sorediate; spores 2-seriate, 60-65 µm long; Aus 

 P. xanthosorediata A.W. Archer
Thallus isidiate; spores 60-100 µm long; widespread; ± 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid, Rarely fertile P. flavida (DC.) Laundon synonyms
71a Thallus lacking soredia and isidia  72

Spores 1-seriate, 52-72 µm long; S. Hemisphere 

P. leioplacella Nyl. photo synonyms
72a Spores 2-seriate, 50-80 µm long; ostioles not mammiform; N.Am, Aus, Seychelles P. texana Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
  Spores 2-seriate, 56-80 µm long; ostioles mammiform, pale yellow; E.Afr. P. xanthothelia Müll. Arg. photo
  Japan; spores 48-80 µm  P. obsolescens Nyl. photo
Stictic and constictic acids present; spores 70 x 28 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; E. Afr. ostioles black, punctiform  P. cinctula Müll. Arg. photo
72c With variolaric acid; spores 65-90 µm long; N.Am P. epixantha R.C. Harris
72d With virensic acid; spores 60-70 µm long; N.Am P. virensica R.C. Harris

Gyrophoric acid present; spores 2-seriate, 60-130 µm long; N.Am, Eur 

P. hymenea (Ach.) Schaer. synonyms
73a Perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives present 74

2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; S.Am. [tlc only] 

P. araucariae Müll. Arg.
74a Perlatolic acid or its derivatives present 75

Perlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-70 µm long; Aus  

P. injuneana A.W. Archer & Elix
75a 2'-O-Methylperlatolic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 76

2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 40-80 µm long; Argentina 

P. formosensis Messuti & A.W. Archer photo
76a 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-82 µm long; Aus P. xylophyes A.W. Archer
  Spores 52-72 µm long, 1-seriate; India; 2-O-methylperlatolic acid and traces thiophaninic acid present; India ?syn: P. amarkantakana Srivastava & Awasthi

Thiophaninic, stictic and protocetraric acids; spores 1-seriate, 50-62 µm long; S.Am 

P. lignicola Malme
77a Thiophaninic and stictic acids with depsides present  78

4-O-Methylisocryptochlorophaeic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 75-100 µm long; Aus 

 P. paradoxica A.W. Archer & Elix photo
78a Perlatolic & hyperlatolic acids present; spores 2-seriate, spores 64-90 µm long; Thailand P. hylocola Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer

Lichen compounds absent

79a Lichen compounds present 86
80 Spores 2-seriate  81
80a Spores 1-seriate 83

Spores 70-110 µm long; Aus S.Am, Cent. Afr.  

Spores 120-150 µm long; Cook Islands 

P. subrigida Müll. Arg. synonyms

P. megacarpa A.W. Archer & Elix

81a Spores ≥ 70 µm long  82
82 Spores 35-55 µm; China  P. subochracea Stirton synonyms

Spores 48-70 µm
Apothecia numerous, confluent; NZ                
Apothecia sparse, scattered; Chile          

P. leucodes Müll. Arg. synonyms
P. fernandeziana Messuti photo
82b Spores 45-50 µm long; ostioles small, black, conspicuous; S.Am  P. melaleuca var. octospora Müll. Arg. photo
82c Spores 45-56 µm long; ostioles large, black, conspicuous; ?N.Am. P. gonolobina Müll. Arg. photo
83 Spores 70-100 µm long; ostioles conspicuous, black; NZ   P. micropora Kremp.
Spores 75-105 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous, black; S.Am  P. dilatata Müll. Arg.
83a Spores 50-75 µm long  84

Apothecia flattened; ostioles black, inconspicuous; S.Am, S.Afr, NZ 

P. cryptocarpoides Vain. synonyms
84a Apothecia flattened; ostioles conspicuous, black; S.Am P. brasiliana Zahlbr. photo synonyms
84b Apothecia flattened hemispherical 85

Ostioles translucent; NZ 

P. albissima Müll. Arg. photo
85b Ostioles conspicuous, black; S.Am P. acromelana Müll. Arg.
86(79a) Depsidones and depsides present   87
86a Depsides present 103
Depsidones [stictic, constictic, norstictic, salazinic, protocetraric] present, depsides absent  88
87a Stictic acid and depsides present 99
88 Stictic, constictic or norstictic acid present  89
88a Salazinic or protocetraric acid present 90

Stictic or constictic acid present; spores 2-seriate 

89a Norstictic acid present 93 

Salazinic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 90-120 µm long; NZ 

P. celata A.W. Archer & Elix
90a Protocetraric acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-95 µm long; Aus   P. errinundrensis A.W. Archer photo

Constictic acid present; spores 80 x 30 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; E. Afr.

P. aspera Müll. Arg. photo
91a Stictic acid present  92

Spores 37-48 µm long; Marquesas Is. 

P. dermatodes Nyl.
92a Spores 145-170 µm long; Guadalupe  P. gibberosula Nyl.

Spores 2-seriate 

93a Spores 1-seriate 96

Spores 180-210 µm long; PNG 

P. sipmanii A.W. Archer & Elix
94a Spores <150 µm long 95

Spores 80-105 µm; ostioles becoming pseudolecanorine; N.Am, S.Am. 

P. propinqua Müll. Arg. synonyms

Spores 75-88 µm long; India, China 

Spores 75-120 µm long; with additional stictic acid; China

P. himalayensis Awasthi & Srivastava

P. qinbaensis Q. Ren photo

95a Spores 45-55 µm long; Norfolk Is P. norfolkensis A.W. Archer photo

Spores 95-115 µm long; S.Am. 

P. patagonica Müll. Arg.
96a Spores <100 µm long 97

Spores 17-20 µm diam; [?not Pertusaria]; Norfolk Is 

P. globospora A.W. Archer photo
97a Spores 50-95µm long 98

Spores 60-95 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous; E.Afr., Aus, PNG, Indonesia

P. endoxantha Vain. synonyms
98a Spores 60 µm long; ostioles, black, conspicuous; W.Afr.  P. personata Müll. Arg. photo
98b Spores 50-70 µm long; Arctic  P. octomela (Norm.) Erichs.
98c Spores 50-75 µm long; India; + unidentified spot ?depside  P. maculata Singh & Sinha

2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 68-85 µm long; Thailand 

P. alboaspera var. disflavens Jariangprasert
99a Perlatolic acid derivatives or divaricatic acid present  100

Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 75-100 µm long; Aus 

P. sydneyensis A.W. Archer & Elix photo
100a Perlatolic acid derivatives present 101
101 2-O-Methylsuperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-100 µm long; Thailand  P. krabiensis Jariangprasert
101a 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 102
102 Spores 1-seriate, 74-110 µm long; Thailand   P. phulhuangensis Jariangprasert
102a Spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; Java  P. minor Müll. Arg.

Stenosporic acid derivatives present 

103a Perlatolic acid or other compounds present  106

2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 100-120 µm long; S.Am [cf. syntype with chloroxanthones, supra] 

P. polita Müll. Arg.
104a 2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present 105

Spores 1-seriate, 60-75 µm long; PNG 

P. kagamugana Elix & A.W. Archer photo
105a Spores 2-seriate, 70-90 µm long; Aus, S.Am, NZ, India  P. leucoplaca Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
106 Gyrophoric or divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate  107
106a Perlatolic acid derivatives present 108
107 Divaricatic acid present; spores 65-75µm; ostioles inconspicuous, pale brown, translucent; PNG  P. papuana A.W. Archer & Elix
Spores 56-85 µm; ostioles conspicuous, black; Sri Lanka P. melastomella Nyl. photo
107a Gyrophoric acid present; spores 40-64 µm; N.Am P. papillata (Ach.) Tuck.

Confluentic acid present 

108a Perlatolic acid derivatives present  110

Additional atranorin present; spores 2-seriate, 50-60 µm long PNG 

P. gorokorana Elix & A.W. Archer
109a Additional 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 40-50 µm long: S.Am P. nana Müll. Arg.
110 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present   111
110a 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present   112
110b Glomellerific acid present; spores 80-90 µm long; S.Am P. corrugata Kremp.

Spores 62-90 µm long; S.Am.  

P. cerussata Malme synonyms
111a Spores 85-102 µm long; Central Afr.  P. kigomensis Dodge
111b Additional stictic acid present; spores 92-120 µm long; S.Am  P. ampliata Erichs. synonyms

Spores 92-120 µm long; S.Am 

P. tuberculifera Nyl. synonyms
112a Spores ≤100 µm long 113

Spores 75-100 µm long; S.Am 

P. achroiza Nyl. photo
113a Spores 65-85 µm long; S.Am; Aus P. mattogrossensis Malme

Spores 55-80 µm long; Aus, PNG, China, Japan 

P. leiocarpella Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
114a Spores > 100 µm long 115

Spores < 150 µm long 

115a Spores 180-270 µm long  P. akagiensis Vain. synonyms 
116 Spores 100-130 µm long; West Indies  P. polysticta Vain. photo synonyms
116a Spores 130-140 µm long; Japan P. laeviganda Nyl. synonyms