Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Australia

Science




Pertusaria Group 22

Apothecia present, verruciform; ascospores (6-)8 per ascus, on wood  

photo = view photo synonyms = view synonyms

1

Xanthones present 

2

1a Xanthones absent  79

2

Lichexanthone or chlorinated derivatives present 

3

2a Norlichexanthone derivatives or thiophaninic acid or its derivatives present  55

3

Lichexanthone present 

3a Chlorinated lichexanthone derivatives present  19

4

Lichexanthone only present; spores 2-seriate, 120-140µm long
Ostioles single, dark brown, pseudolecanorine; Brasil  
Ostioles several, black, punctiform; Chile

P. phaeostoma Müll. Arg. synonyms
P. valdiviana Messuti & A.W. Archer photo

4a Lichexanthone with depsides and/or depsidones present 5

5

Lichexanthone and stictic or norstictic or protocetraric acid present  

6

5a Lichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic and 2-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 64-78 µm long; Thailand P. alboaspera var. deficiens Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer 
  Lichexanthone and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; 2-O-methylstenosporic acid absent; spores 52 x 27 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; Central Afr.  P. subareolata Müll. Arg. photo

6

Lichexanthone and protocetraric acid present

7

6a Lichexanthone and stictic acid present 10
6b Lichexanthone and norstictic acid ± stictic acid; spores 16-22 µm long; S.Am P. phlyctaenula Nyl.

7

Lichexanthone and protocetraric acid; spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; S.Am 

 P. rhodostomoides Vain.

7a Lichexanthone, protocetraric acid and depsides present  8

8

Lichexanthone, protocetraric and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present

9

8a Lichexanthone, protocetraric and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 2-seriate, 60-100 µm long; Thailand  P. nanensis Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer

9

Spores 1-seriate, 80-125 µm long, rough-walled, with  additional planaic acid;  Central Afr. 

 P. lambionii A.W. Archer et al. 

9a Spores 55-60 µm long, smooth-walled; S.Am  P. curatellae Malme

10

Lichexanthone and stictic acid present

 11

10a Lichexanthone, stictic acid and depsides present  14

11

Thallus sorediate or spores rough-walled 

12

11a Thallus esorediate and spores smooth-walled  13

12

Thallus sorediate; spores  98-111 µm long; Central Afr. 

P. fosseyae A.W. Archer et al.

12a Thallus esorediate; spores 125-175 µm long; West Indies  P. parnassia Vain.

13

Spores 2-seriate, 100-140 µm long; Aus, S.Am, India, Sri Lanka 

P. nigrata Kremp. photo synonyms

13a Spores 1-seriate, 75-87 µm long; S.Am.  P. tuberculifera var. ferax Müll. Arg.

14

Sekikaic or confluentic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acids present 

15

14a Stenosporic acid derivatives present  16

15

Sekikaic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 100-140 µm long; Aus 

P. dehiscens var. sekikaica A.W. Archer & Elix

15a Confluentic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 87-110 µm long P. gracilis f. heteromera Müll. Arg.
15b

2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present:
Spores 1-seriate, 75-105 µm long; Aus 

P. leucostigma Müll. Arg. photo
  Spores 1-seriate, 60-90 µm long; N.Am  P. paratuberculifera Dibben 
  Spores 40-52 µm long, 1-seriate; additional planaic acid present; Aus  P490  Pertusaria sp.

16

Lichexanthone, stictic and 2'-O-methylstenosporic acids present; spores 2-seriate, 70-110 µm long; Thailand 

P. platycarpa Jariangprasert

16a  Lichexanthone, stictic and 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acids present   17
17

Spores 1-seriate, 50-67 µm long; Brazil 

P. verruculifera Vain.
Spores 1-seriate, 60-84 µm long;  Colombia   P. leioplaca var. pycnocarpa Nyl. photo
17a Spores 2-seriate 18
18

Spores 90-100 µm long; Aus[ostioles pale] 

 P. alboaspera A.W. Archer & Elix
18a Spores 75-85 µm long; S.Afr.[ostioles pale]  P. glaucocinerea Vain.
  Spores 62-75 µm long; S.Afr [ostioles black] P. congesta Vain.
19(3a)

4,5-Dichlorolichexanthone present 

20
19a 2-Chlorolichexanthone or 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorolichexanthones and 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present 44
 
20

4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone only present

21
20a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsidones and/or depsides present  24
21

Spores 150-200 µm long; [± 4-chlorolichexanthone]; S.Am

 P. confundens Nyl.
21a Spores <100 µm long 22
22

Spores 1-seriate, 30-37 µm long; NZ

 P. parvula A.W. Archer & Elix

22a Spores 2-seriate, >50 µm long 23
23

Spores 60-90 µm long; Aus, Asia, Central Afr. 

P. rigida Müll. Arg. synonyms
Finland; 6/ascus [also + stictic acid]  P. rasanenii Erichs.
23a Spores 55-70 µm long; S.Am; ostioles conspicuous, black, 1-4, in translucent zones P. mundula Müll. Arg 
  Spores 50-62 µm long; Aus; ostioles inconspicuous, 1, black, punctiform  NSW 156055 

24

4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsidones present 

25

24a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides present, ±stictic acid 30
25

4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and norstictic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 67-85 µm long; Aus 

Spores 1-seriate, 28-50 µm long; China

P. undulata Müll. Arg.

P. wenxianensis Q. Ren photo

25a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and stictic acid present 26
26

Spores 1-seriate 

 27
26a Spores 2-seriate 114
27

Species circumboreal 

28
27a Species in Southern Hemisphere  29
28

Spores 18-46 µm long

P. sommerfeltii (Flörke) Fr. synonyms
28a Spores 40-70 µm long; also in Japan P. alpina Hepp ex Ahles synonyms
28b Spores 30-60 µm long; S Eur. P. constricta Erichs.
  Spores 60-90 µm long; central Eur P. caesioumbrina Eitner
29

Spores 65-70 µm long; ostioles white; Aus  

P. leucostomoides Zahlbr. synonyms
29a Spores 48-72 µm long; ostioles black; S.Am P. melanostoma Kremp.
30

4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid and stenosporic acid derivatives present 

31
30a 4.5-Dichlorolichexanthone and depsides or 9-O-methylalternariol present  32
31

2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 80-94 µm long; Thailand 

P. kansriae var. stictica Jariangprasert
31a 2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic & 2,2'-di-O-methyldivaricatic acids present; spores 64-102 µm long; Thailand  P. subplanaica var. stictica Jariangprasert
32

With perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives 

33
32a With 9-O-methylalternariol; spores 2-seriate, 75-87 µm long; PNG P. praecipua A.W. Archer & Elix
33

With stenosporic acid derivatives present 

34
33a With perlatolic acid derivatives or confluentic, miriquidic or divaricatic acids present 36
34

2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2 seriate, 64-80 µm long; India 

P. rimosa Awasti & Srivastava
34a 2'-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 1 seriate, 70-80 µm long; Aus P. praetermissa A.W. Archer & Elix
34b With 2,2'-di-O-methylstenosporic acid 35
35

Spores 1-seriate, 70-110 µm long; Aus, NZ 

P. subplanaica A.W. Archer & Elix
35a Spores 2-seriate, 60-78 µm long; Thailand  P. boklueaensis Jariangprasert
36

Miriquidic or confluentic acid present 

37
36a Perlatolic acid, perlatolic acid derivatives or divaricatic acid present  38
37

Miriquidic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 75-95 µm long; Aus 

P. novaehollandiae A.W. Archer photo
37a Confluentic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-75 µm long; PNG P. weberi A.W. Archer & Elix
37b Confluentic and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 50-60 µm long; Eur   P. werneriana Boqueras
38

Perlatolic or divaricatic acid present 

39
38a Perlatolic acid derivatives present 40
39

Perlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 50-60 µm long; Aus  

P. minispora A.W. Archer & Elix
39a Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 75-82 µm long; Aus P. pseudothwaitesii A.W. Archer & Elix
40

2'-O-Methylperlatolic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 

41
40a 2-O-methylperlatolic acid and 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 31-44 µm long; Argentina  P. kalelae Messuti photo
40b Planaic acid present  43
41

2-O-Methylperlatolic acid and methyl 2-O-methylperlatolate present; spores 1-seriate, 50-60 µm  long; Aus.

 P. xenismota A.W. Archer & Elix photo
41a 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 42
42

Spores 1-seriate, 32-65 µm long; Aus 

Spores 20-30 µ long; China

P. pertractata Stirt. synonyms

P. parasommerfeltii Q.Ren photo

  With additional 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone; PNG  P. allogiberosa A.W. Archer & Elix
42a Spores 2-seriate, 55-110 µm long; Aus, Sri Lanka, N.Am  P. mesotropa Müll. Arg. synonyms
43

Spores 80-100 µm; E.Aus  

P. planaica A.W. Archer & Elix
43a Spores 40-65 µm; W.Aus P. subarida A.W. Archer & Elix
44(19a)

2-Chlorolichexanthone present 

45
44a 2,4- and 2,5-Dichlorolichexanthones and 2,4,5-trichlorolichexanthone present  48
45

2-Chlorolichexanthone and depsidones present 

46
45a 2-Chlorolichexanthone and depsides present  47
45b 2-Chlorolichexanthone only present; spores 45-50 µm long; S.Am  P. torquatella Müll. Arg.
46

Stictic acid (major) and constictic acid (minor) present; spores 2-seriate, 65-80 µm long; S. hemisphere; ostioles pale

 P. cryptostoma Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
46a Constictic acid (major) and stictic acid (minor) present; spores 2-seriate, 55-66 µm long; S.Am  P. delicatula Müll. Arg.
47

2'-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-70 µm long: Aus  

P. boweniana A.W.Archer & Elix
47a Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-92 µm long: Aus P. orarensis A.W. Archer & Elix
48(44a)

Xanthones only present 

49
48a Xanthones and stictic acid and/or depsides present 52
49

Spores 105-135 µm long; 2-seriate, rough-walled; PNG 
 

P. anomalospora A.W. Archer, Elix & Streimann photo
49a Spores <100 µm long, 2-seriate   50
50

Spores 50-75 µm long 

51
50a Spores 70-100 µm long; N.Am 'xanthone X-2' P. ostiolata Dibben
50b Spores 40-54 µm long: S.Am. P. torquatella var. ferax Müll. Arg.
51 Spores 62-75 µm long; ostioles brown, conspicuous; S.Am  P. paraguayensis Müll. Arg.
51a Spores 48-60 µm long; ostioles pale grey, translucent; West Indies P. glaucopunctata Vain.
52(48a)

Stictic acid present 

53
52a Stictic acid absent 54
53

Spores 2-seriate, 50-75 µm long; Aus 

P. lordhowensis A.W. Archer & Elix
53a Additional 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 45-50 µm long; Aus P. gundermanica A.W. Archer & Elix
54

Additional 2-O-methyl- & 2'-O-methylperlatolic acids present; spores 1-seriate, 45-50 µm long; Aus 

P. complanata A.W. Archer & Elix
54a Additional 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 85-112 µm long; S.Am [syntype, leg. Schenk 1891] P. 'polita' Müll. Arg.
55(2a)

Arthothelin, 6-O-methylarthothelin or thiophanic acid present 

56
55a Thiophaninic acid or 4-chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present  59
56

Arthothelin and thiophanic acid present 

57
56a 6-O-Methylarthothelin and arthothelin present; spores 2-seriate 58
57

Spores 60-75 µm long; NZ 

P. bartlettii A.W. Archer & Elix
57a Spores 80-95µm long; PNG P. karkarensis A.W. Archer & Elix
58

Spores 100-125 µm long; S.Am 

P. papillulata Nyl. synonyms
58a Spores 60-87 µm long; S.Am & Aus P. oblongata Müll. Arg. synonyms
58b Spores 55-60 µm; 6-O-methylarthothelin only; S.Am.  P. candida Müll. Arg. photo
59(55a)

4-Chloro-6-O-methylnorlichexanthone present; spores 1-seriate, 70-87 µm long; Sri Lanka 

P. subdepressa Müll. Arg.
59a Thiophaninic acid present  60
60

Thiophaninic acid only present 

61
60a Thiophaninic and depsides and/or depsidones present 66
61

Spores 1-seriate, 50-70 µm long; ostioles black; NZ 

P. laevis C.Knight
61a Spores 2-seriate 62
62

Spores 85-115 µm long; ostioles black; NZ 

P. theochroa Kremp.
62a Spores 50-95 µm long  63
63

Spores 75-95 µm; ostioles brown; Aus 

P. thiophaninica A.W. Archer
63a Spores ≤ 70 µm 64
64

Spores 50-70 µm long; S.Am and New Caledonia 

65
64a Spores 52-65 µm long; French Antilles P. flavens Nyl.
64b Spores 30-70 µm long; 1-2 seriate; Eur. P. plombii B. de Lesd.
64c Spores 40-50 µm long; Argentina      P. chacoensis Messuti & L.I. Ferraro photo
65
Spores 8/ascus; S.Am 
 
P. meridionalis var. ochrostoma Müll. Arg.  photo synonyms
65a Spores 4? 8? /ascus; New Caledonia P. endochroma Müll. Arg.

66(60a)

Depsidones ± depsides present 67
66a Depsides present, depsidones absent 73
67 Norstictic or protocetraric acid present  68
67a Stictic or variolaric acid present 69
68 Norstictic acid present; spores 55-110 µm long; N.Am  P. rubefacta Erichs.
  Spores 52-68 µm; N. Africa P. praelutescens Werner [nom. inval.]
68a Protocetraric acid present; spores  55-85 µm long; S.Am P. glaziovii Müll. Arg. synonyms
69

Thiophaninic, stictic, variolaric or virensic acids present; depsides absent 

70
69a Thiophaninic and stictic acid with depsides or protocetraric acid present 77
70

Additional constictic and hypoconsticic acids present; spores 1-seriate, 50-75 µm long; S.Am

 P. rhodostoma Nyl.
70a Thiophaninic acid, stictic or variolaric or virensic acids present 71
71

Stictic acid present; thallus sorediate; spores 2-seriate, 60-65 µm long; Aus 

 P. xanthosorediata A.W. Archer
Thallus isidiate; spores 60-100 µm long; widespread; ± 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid, Rarely fertile P. flavida (DC.) Laundon synonyms
71a Thallus lacking soredia and isidia  72
72

Spores 1-seriate, 52-72 µm long; S. Hemisphere 

P. leioplacella Nyl. photo synonyms
72a Spores 2-seriate, 50-80 µm long; ostioles not mammiform; N.Am, Aus, Seychelles P. texana Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
  Spores 2-seriate, 56-80 µm long; ostioles mammiform, pale yellow; E.Afr. P. xanthothelia Müll. Arg. photo
  Japan; spores 48-80 µm  P. obsolescens Nyl. photo
72b
Stictic and constictic acids present; spores 70 x 28 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; E. Afr. ostioles black, punctiform  P. cinctula Müll. Arg. photo
72c With variolaric acid; spores 65-90 µm long; N.Am P. epixantha R.C. Harris
72d With virensic acid; spores 60-70 µm long; N.Am P. virensica R.C. Harris
73(66a)

Gyrophoric acid present; spores 2-seriate, 60-130 µm long; N.Am, Eur 

P. hymenea (Ach.) Schaer. synonyms
73a Perlatolic or stenosporic acid derivatives present 74
74

2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; S.Am. [tlc only] 

P. araucariae Müll. Arg.
74a Perlatolic acid or its derivatives present 75
75

Perlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-70 µm long; Aus  

P. injuneana A.W. Archer & Elix
75a 2'-O-Methylperlatolic or 2-O-methylperlatolic acid present 76
76

2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 40-80 µm long; Argentina 

P. formosensis Messuti & A.W. Archer photo
76a 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-82 µm long; Aus P. xylophyes A.W. Archer
  Spores 52-72 µm long, 1-seriate; India; 2-O-methylperlatolic acid and traces thiophaninic acid present; India ?syn: P. amarkantakana Srivastava & Awasthi
77(69a)

Thiophaninic, stictic and protocetraric acids; spores 1-seriate, 50-62 µm long; S.Am 

P. lignicola Malme
77a Thiophaninic and stictic acids with depsides present  78
78

4-O-Methylisocryptochlorophaeic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 75-100 µm long; Aus 

 P. paradoxica A.W. Archer & Elix
78a Perlatolic & hyperlatolic acids present; spores 2-seriate, spores 64-90 µm long; Thailand P. hylocola Jariangprasert & A.W. Archer
79(1a)

Lichen compounds absent

80
79a Lichen compounds present 86
80 Spores 2-seriate  81
80a Spores 1-seriate 83
81

Spores 70-110 µm long; Aus S.Am, Cent. Afr. 

P. subrigida Müll. Arg. synonyms
81a Spores ≥ 70 µm long  82
82 Spores 35-55 µm; China  P. subochracea Stirton synonyms
82a

Spores 48-70 µm
Apothecia numerous, confluent; NZ                
Apothecia sparse, scattered; Chile          

P. leucodes Müll. Arg. synonyms
P. fernandeziana Messuti photo
82b Spores 45-50 µm long; ostioles small, black, conspicuous; S.Am  P. melaleuca var. octospora Müll. Arg. photo
82c Spores 45-56 µm long; ostioles large, black, conspicuous; ?N.Am. P. gonolobina Müll. Arg. photo
83 Spores 70-100 µm long; ostioles conspicuous, black; NZ   P. micropora Kremp.
Spores 75-105 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous, black; S.Am  P. dilatata Müll. Arg.
83a Spores 50-75 µm long  84
84

Apothecia flattened; ostioles black, inconspicuous; S.Am, S.Afr, NZ 

P. cryptocarpoides Vain. synonyms
84a Apothecia flattened; ostioles conspicuous, black; S.Am P. brasiliana Zahlbr. photo synonyms
84b Apothecia flattened hemispherical 85
85

Ostioles translucent; NZ 

P. albissima Müll. Arg. photo
85b Ostioles conspicuous, black; S.Am P. acromelana Müll. Arg.
86(79a) Depsidones and depsides present   87
86a Depsides present 103
87
Depsidones [stictic, constictic, norstictic, salazinic, protocetraric] present, depsides absent  88
87a Stictic acid and depsides present 99
88 Stictic, constictic or norstictic acid present  89
88a Salazinic or protocetraric acid present 90
89

Stictic or constictic acid present; spores 2-seriate 

91
89a Norstictic acid present 93 
90

Salazinic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 90-120 µm long; NZ 

P. celata A.W. Archer & Elix
90a Protocetraric acid present; spores 2-seriate, 70-95 µm long; Aus   P. errinundrensis A.W. Archer photo
91

Constictic acid present; spores 80 x 30 µm [fide Müll. Arg.]; E. Afr.

P. aspera Müll. Arg. photo
91a Stictic acid present  92
92

Spores 37-48 µm long; Marquesas Is. 

P. dermatodes Nyl.
92a Spores 145-170 µm long; Guadalupe  P. gibberosula Nyl.
93

Spores 2-seriate 

94
93a Spores 1-seriate 96
94

Spores 180-210 µm long; PNG 

P. sipmanii A.W. Archer & Elix
94a Spores <150 µm long 95
95

Spores 80-105 µm; ostioles becoming pseudolecanorine; N.Am, S.Am. 

P. propinqua Müll. Arg. synonyms

Spores 75-88 µm long; India, China 

Spores 75-120 µm long; with additional stictic acid; China

P. himalayensis Awasthi & Srivastava

P. qinbaensis Q. Ren photo

95a Spores 45-55 µm long; Norfolk Is P. norfolkensis A.W. Archer photo
96

Spores 95-115 µm long; S.Am. 

P. patagonica Müll. Arg.
96a Spores <100 µm long 97
97

Spores 17-20 µm diam; [?not Pertusaria]; Norfolk Is 

P. globospora A.W. Archer photo
97a Spores 50-95µm long 98
98

Spores 60-95 µm long; ostioles inconspicuous; E.Afr., Aus, PNG, Indonesia

P. endoxantha Vain. synonyms
98a Spores 60 µm long; ostioles, black, conspicuous; W.Afr.  P. personata Müll. Arg. photo
98b Spores 50-70 µm long; Arctic  P. octomela (Norm.) Erichs.
98c Spores 50-75 µm long; India; + unidentified spot ?depside  P. maculata Singh & Sinha
99(87a)

2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 68-85 µm long; Thailand 

P. alboaspera var. disflavens Jariangprasert
99a Perlatolic acid derivatives or divaricatic acid present  100
100

Divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 75-100 µm long; Aus 

P. sydneyensis A.W. Archer & Elix
100a Perlatolic acid derivatives present 101
101 2-O-Methylsuperlatolic acid present; spores 1-seriate, 60-100 µm long; Thailand  P. krabiensis Jariangprasert
101a 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present 102
102 Spores 1-seriate, 74-110 µm long; Thailand   P. phulhuangensis Jariangprasert
102a Spores 2-seriate, 70-80 µm long; Java  P. minor Müll. Arg.
103(86a)

Stenosporic acid derivatives present 

104
103a Perlatolic acid or other compounds present  106
104

2,2'-Di-O-methylstenosporic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 100-120 µm long; S.Am [cf. syntype with chloroxanthones, supra] 

P. polita Müll. Arg.
104a 2-O-Methylstenosporic acid present 105
105

Spores 1-seriate, 60-75 µm long; PNG 

P. kagamugana Elix & A.W. Archer photo
105a Spores 2-seriate, 70-90 µm long; Aus, S.Am, NZ, India  P. leucoplaca Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
106 Gyrophoric or divaricatic acid present; spores 2-seriate  107
106a Perlatolic acid derivatives present 108
107 Divaricatic acid present; spores 65-75µm; ostioles inconspicuous, pale brown, translucent; PNG  P. papuana A.W. Archer & Elix
Spores 56-85 µm; ostioles conspicuous, black; Sri Lanka P. melastomella Nyl. photo
107a Gyrophoric acid present; spores 40-64 µm; N.Am P. papillata (Ach.) Tuck.
108

Confluentic acid present 

109
108a Perlatolic acid derivatives present  110
109

Additional atranorin present; spores 2-seriate, 50-60 µm long PNG 

P. gorokorana Elix & A.W. Archer
109a Additional 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid present; spores 2-seriate, 40-50 µm long: S.Am P. nana Müll. Arg.
110 2'-O-Methylperlatolic acid present   111
110a 2-O-Methylperlatolic acid present   112
110b Glomellerific acid present; spores 80-90 µm long; S.Am P. corrugata Kremp.
111

Spores 62-90 µm long; S.Am.  

P. cerussata Malme synonyms
111a Spores 85-102 µm long; Central Afr.  P. kigomensis Dodge
111b Additional stictic acid present; spores 92-120 µm long; S.Am  P. ampliata Erichs. synonyms
112

Spores 92-120 µm long; S.Am 

P. tuberculifera Nyl. synonyms
112a Spores ≤100 µm long 113
113

Spores 75-100 µm long; S.Am 

P. achroiza Nyl. photo
113a Spores 65-85 µm long; S.Am; Aus P. mattogrossensis Malme
114(26a)

Spores 55-80 µm long; Aus, PNG, China, Japan 

P. leiocarpella Müll. Arg. photo synonyms
114a Spores > 100 µm long 115
115

Spores < 150 µm long 

116
115a Spores 180-270 µm long  P. akagiensis Vain. synonyms 
116 Spores 100-130 µm long; West Indies  P. polysticta Vain. photo synonyms
116a Spores 130-140 µm long; Japan P. laeviganda Nyl. synonyms