- Evolutionary ecology research
- Horticultural research
- Plant diversity research
- Amalie Dietrich project
- Australian freshwater algae
- Australian mesic zone biota
- Cycad evolution and diversity
- Fern biodiversity of Australia
- Fern and gymnosperm research
- Lamiaceae & Loganiaceae
- Lamiaceae & Urticaceae
- Lepidoziaceae - southern liverworts
- Marine algae
- Myrtaceae - Biology
- Orchidaceae tribe Diurideae - phylogeny
- Orchids - DNA of ground orchids
- Pertusaria - key
- Phylogenetic biome conservatism
- Poales - aligning classification
- Poales restiid clade
- Podocarpus elatus - Quaternary climate change
- Project Camellia
- Prostanthera - pollination studies
- Proteaceae - evolution
- Restionaceae - DNA studies
- Restionaceae - new species and phylogeny
- Rutaceae - Flora of Australia
- She-oaks - tough survivors
- Telopea special edition
- Telopea 2012-2013
- Theaceae of South-East Asia
- Trees of Papua New Guinea
- Tristaniopsis in south-east Asia
- Urticaceae of Java
- Utricularia - evolution
- Utricularia - evolution and diversification
- Utricularia- phylogeny and new species
- XVIII International Botanical Congress
- Plant pathology research
- Herbarium & resources
- Scientific publications
Cystocarps are the combined structure of the haploid (1n) female gametophytic tissue, known as the pericarp, that surrounding the carposporophyte (2n), which is made up of carposporangia.
Externally, they can appear like snails sitting on the surface of the plant, like on this red alga, Martensia australis.
Sometimes they look like hemispherical lumps as in the red alga, Halichrysis coalescens.
Many cystocarps have urceolate ostioles making them look like Greek urns.
You can actually see the spore mass inside the cystocarp in this image of the red alga Dictothamnion saltatum.
In a verticle section of a cystocarp, you can see the dark spores forming a tight ball attached to a fusion cell. This fusion cells is a bit like a human placenta. The surrounding, protective tissue is the pericarp and this tissue is the female gametophyte or ‘mother’.
Or they can look like golf balls on a ‘T’ as in this red alga, Claudea elegans.