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References, links and further information

This background document complements the statutory Threat Abatement Plan (TAP). The TAP outlines the actions proposed to abate the threat and addresses the statutory requirements of the document. This background document provides supporting information on matters such as the biology of the pathogen, its population dynamics, spread, diagnosis and impacts on biodiversity and management measures.

This report (cited as O’Gara E, Howard K, Wilson B, Hardy GEStJ (2005) Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi for Biodiversity Conservation in Australia) was funded by the Commonwealth Government Department of the Environment and Heritage by the Centre for Phytophthora Science and Management, Murdoch University, Western Australia. A model of best practice was developed which encompasses all the components necessary for an informed and integrated approach to P. cinnamomi management, from strategic through to on-ground management.

This document has two major components:

  • to review current management approaches and identify benchmarks for best practice
  • the development of risk assessment criteria and a system for prioritising management of assets that are or could be threatened by P. cinnamomi.

The document is divided into 4 parts, and includes a number of appendices:

  • Part 1 - A Review of Current Management, thoroughly reviews the approaches to P. cinnamomi management in Australia within the context of the best practice model
  • Part 2 - National Best Practice Guidelines. These are the first national best practice management guidelines developed in Australia for management of P. cinnamomi in natural ecosystems, and consequently recommendations on their use are provided. The management guidelines are divided into two sections
    • addressing best practice at the strategic/tactical level of management
    • addressing the operational and on-ground management of P. cinnamomi
  • Critical success factors for management and discussions on the development of appropriate performance indicators are provided
  • Part 2 - Appendix 1 Phytophthora cinnamomi. Provides background information on the biology and epidemiology of P. cinnamomi.
  • Part 2 - Appendix 2 Rational of Current Management Options. Provides details of options to employ to minimise spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi, including signage, controlling water, developing cleaning stations for machinery, vehicles and feet!
  • Part 2 - Appendix 3 Areas Vulnerable to Disease Caused by P. cinnamomi. This shows the area in Australia that fits the climatic envelope of P. cinnamomi. The map showing occurrence in Australia is now quite outdated and, of course, any map will only show you occurrences where sampling has been conducted. 
  • Part 2 - Appendix 4 The Responses of Native Australian Plant Species to P. cinnamomi. This list was compiled by Dr Keith McDougall, DECCW and was last updated in September 2005 but nevertheless is a great starting point. As yet few NSW species have been tested for susceptibility to P. cinnamomi
  • Part 3 - Risk Assessment for Threats to Ecosystems, Species and Communities: A Review .
  • Part 4 - Risk Assessment Models for Species, Ecological Communities and Areas. This document describes the attached models for assessing the risk of P. cinnamomi to biodiversity in Australia. These models were developed after a review of previous and current studies, unpublished information and expert opinion (Part 3). Please refer to the recommendations presented in the beginning of the document before using the models.  
NSW: Phytophthora cinnamomi as a Key Threatening Process

NSW: The approved 'NSW Statement of Intent 1: infection of native plants by Phytophthora cinnamomi' is available as a PDF file (835 KB). 
 

Australasian Plant Conservation, Special Issue on Pathogens and Plant Conservation: Volume 13 Number 4 March - May 2005. Most of the articles in this volume are on Phytophthora in Australia.
 
International Union of Forest Research Organisations, Unit 7.02.09 - Phytophthora in forests and natural ecosystems

Howard CG, 2008. A contemporary study of the genetic variation of Phytophthora cinnamomi recovered from natural ecosystems of New South Wales. PhD Thesis, University of Sydney.

McDougall KL & Summerell BA, 2003.  The impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi on the flora and vegetation of New South Wales - a re-appraisal. In Phytophthora in Forests and Natural Ecosystems. 2nd International IUFRO Working Party 7.02.09 Meeting, Albany, Western Australia, October 2001. Eds. JA McComb, GE St J Hardy and IC Tommerup; pages 49-56. (Murdoch University Print: Murdoch, Western Australia).

McDougall KL, Summerell BA, Coburn D and Newton M, 2003. Phytophthora cinnamomi causing disease in subalpine vegetation in New South Wales. Australasian Plant Pathology 32: 113-115.

Summerell B, Pongpisutta R & Howard C, 2005.  The biology of Phytophthora cinnamomi, Australasian Plant Conservation 13(4).  

Walsh J, Keith D, McDougall K, Summerell B & Whelan R, 2006.  Phytophthora Root Rot: assessing he potential treat to Australia’s oldest national park, Ecological Management & Restoration 7(1): 55-60. More.

Walsh J, McDougall KL, Whelan R and Summerell BA, 2003. The distribution and impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Royal National Park, New South Wales. In Phytophthora in Forests and Natural Ecosystems. 2nd International IUFRO Working Party 7.02.09 Meeting, Albany, Western Australia, October 2001. Eds. JA McComb, GEStJ Hardy and IC Tommerup; pages 280-281. (Murdoch University Print: Murdoch, Western Australia).

Documents from the Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority Area project (please email edward.liew@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au for a copy of these documents):

  • Suddaby T & Liew E, 2008.  Best Practice Management Guidelines for Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Sydney Metropolitan CMA (PDF file 1 MB)
  • Suddaby T, 2008. Survey locations of Phytophthora cinnamomi within the Sydney Metropolitan CMA (PDF file 1.2 MB)
  • Suddaby T, 2008. Survey of the distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi in bushland of the Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority (PDF file 620 KB)
  • Suddaby T, 2008. The susceptibility of selected NSW plant species to Phytophthora cinnamomi (PDF file 517 KB)

Documents from the Hawkesbury Nepean Catchment Management Authority Area project (please email edward.liew@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au for a copy of these documents):

  • Suddaby T & Liew E, 2008. Best Practice Management Guidelines for Phytophthora cinnamomi within the Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority Area. (33 pp. - 516 KB MSWord document)
  • Suddaby T & Liew E, 2008. Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Hawkesbury Nepean Catchment Management Authority Area (Map PDF file 1 MB)
  • Suddaby T, 2008. Susceptibility of selected NSW plant species to Phytophthora cinnamomi (11 pp. - 398 KB MSWord document)
  • Suddaby T, 2008. Survey of the distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi in bushland of the Hawkesbury Nepean Catchment Management Authority Area (11 pp. - 663 KB MSWord document)

Our brochures: 
Flyer - for bushwalkers (PDF file 3.1 MB)
5 strategies approach to manage Phytophthora Dieback (PDF file 1.6 MB)

Other websites:
 WA Dieback Working Group 
 Western Australian Project Dieback site, which also includes hygiene information.
Managing Phytophthora Dieback in Bushland A Guide for Landholders and Community Conservation Groups EDITION 7, 2015 Western Australia.
Centre for Phytophthora Science and Management

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